Utilitarianism Responses Explored & Debunked

Utilitarianism Responses Explored & Debunked Any debater who’s been around me knows that I love utilitarianism. It’s my favorite philosophy, and I’ve read quite a bit about it. This is why the current state of debate around utilitarianism in Ohio, and other traditional circuits, bothers me so much. It’s intellectually dishonest, lazy, and often completely warrantless. As such, I thought … Read More

Structural Violence

Insert whatever value is most applicable to the topic or you prefer to run. Justice or morality work best with this criterion. In order to create a society that is [just/moral/insert your value], we must recognize our biases and actively strive to ensure all people are morally included. Winter and Leighton 1999 explain Finally, to recognize the operation of structural … Read More

Rule of Law

Thus, the value is Justice, defined as giving each their due. Randy E. Barnett law professor at Georgetown University Law Center writes Moreover, this assumption views legal precepts as distinct from and at least sometimes opposed to the requirements of justice. However, the analysis presented here offers a quite different picture of this relationship. Justice, at least in its first … Read More


The value for today’s round is justice. Philip Pettit of Princeton University 2003 writes Think of how you feel when your welfare depends on the decision of others and you have no come-back against that decision. You are in a position where you will sink or swim, depending on their say-so. And you have no physical or legal recourse, no … Read More

Rawls – 2 Principles of Justice

The value for today’s round is justice defined as fairness. John Rawls writes in “A theory of Justice” 1971[1] In justice as fairness the original position of equality corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract. This original position is not, of course, thought of as an actual historical state of affairs, much less … Read More

Political Realism

The value is governmental legitimacy. Political Realist Bernard Williams explains “It is a necessary condition of legitimacy (LEG) that the state solve the first [political] question.” He furthers, “I identify the “first” political question in Hobbesian terms as the securing of order, protection, safety, trust, and the conditions of cooperation. It is “first” because solving it is the condition of … Read More

Paternalism (Liberty/Autonomy)

In order for there to be good ends, there must be some unconditionally good thing. Humanity, or rather our rational nature, is this unconditional good. Christine Korsgaard in 1983 explains that The argument shows how Kant’s idea of justification works. It can be read as a kind of regress upon the conditions, starting from an important assumption. The assumption is … Read More

Respecting Liberty (Korsgaard)

The existence of extrinsic goodness requires unconditional human worth—that means we must treat others as ends in themselves. Christine Korsgaard writes in 1983 that The argument shows how Kant’s idea of justification works. It can be read as a kind of regress upon the conditions, starting from an important assumption. The assumption is that when a rational being makes a … Read More

Locke – Social Contract

Because only a legitimate authority generates political obligations, I value governmental legitimacy. Simmons of Cornell University 1999 explains This Lockean account utilizes one standard moral conception of state legitimacy [which is that],‘ and it is this conception of legitimacy” that I will hereafter have in mind when I use that term. A state’s (or government’s) legitimacy is the complex moral … Read More